16s r-RNA 16S rRNA gene target Absentees acid fast bacilli active case detection active case finding activities of daily living Activity adamawa Adherent leucoma adolescent adrenal gland adverse effects AFB Ag85 age at onset Aged Alopecia alopecia Anaesthetic foot anesthetic foot anti-leprosy therapy Antibodies antibody Antigen anxiety attitude attitudes Awareness Bacillary index bacterial index Bacteriological index bacteriological index ballpoint pen Bangladesh Beijing beliefs BI negative biofilm biopsy blindness bone mineral density Borderline borderline leprosy borderline tuberculoid leprosy Brazil Buddhism bullous Bullous lesions Burkholderia pseudomallei carriage case detection Case detection cataract in leprosy cause of death chemokines chemoprophylaxis Chemoprophylaxis Chemotherapy Chhattisgarh child Childhood Childhood leprosy children Christianity chromoblastomycosis Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy chronic neuritis chronic pain classificaion classification claw hand clinical demonstration CLTRI co-infection Co-infection Co-prevalent cases cold water Colombia colony Common Mental Disorders community community participation Community stigma community stigma community-based programs comorbidities comorbidity Construct Validity Contact screening contact screening contact tracing contacts contacts of leprosy contacts of leprosy cases Coping Corneal grafts corneal opacity Corticosteroids Cosmetic Cosmetic camouflage cotton wool COVID 19 and leprosy COVID-19 COVID-19 and leprosy Criterion Validity customized insole customized insoles cutaneous nerve biopsy Cutaneous nerve biopsy cyclophosphamide Cytokine cytokines Dapsone dapsone Dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome dapsone hypersensitivity syndrome de novo histoid leprosy decompression delay delay in diagnosis Delays denovo histoid leprosy Dental infections depression Detection Dhanusha Diabetes diabetes diagnosis Diagnosis diagnostic delay diagnostic test direct and indirect health information technology disabilities Disability disability disappearance Discrimination distorted fascicular architecture DLQI Dressing drug induced adverse effects Drug resistance Drug Resistance Eastern-Southern United States Effectiveness electromyography electrophysiological assessment Electrophysiological study of nerves in leprosy elephantiasis-like elimination employment empowerment Enhanced risk of transmission ENL ENLIST entitlements environment epidemiological tendency epidemiology Epidemiology Epididymo-orchitis epithelioid cell granulomas Erectile dysfunction erythema nodosum leprosum Erythema nodosum leprosum Europe evaluation facial granuloma familial leprosy Fedis Finger prosthesis Fixed duration treatment Florida foam cells Focussed Leprosy Campaign folliculotropic mycosis fungoides folP1 Gene footwear force sensitive resistors fracture risk FRAP fulani functional evaluation functioning Fungal Gender gender Generalized atrophoderma genotype Geographical distribution global leprosy situation global Leprosy situation Glutathione S-transferase Grade 1 Grade 2 grade 2 deformities Grade 2 Disability (G2D) grade-2 disability granuloma granulomatous hepatitis GSH gynaecomastia Hansen Hansen Disease Hansen disease Hansen; Nerve abscesses; Borderline tuberculoid leprosy; Downgrading Type 1 reaction Hansen’s disease Hansen’s diseases hansens Hansens disease Hansens diseases Hansens’ disease HbsAg HBV HCV health education health related quality of life Health Services hepatitis C Hinduism Histoid Hansen’s Histoid Hansens Histoid leprosy Histology histopathology Histopathology HIV HLA-B*13:01 household household contact Household contact examinations Household contacts Hyper-endemic leprosy hypervascularity hypocalcemia hypogonadism ICF identical twins Igbo iliopsoas abscess Immunohistochemistry Impairment in situ RT-PCR incidence Incident cases Incomers index case India indigenous Indonesia infection Infectious Diseases innovation interferon interleukin-10 Internalised stigma Intervention Islam isolation Jainism Jinchuang Ointment Kiribati knowledge Knowledge Kolkata lactation Latex Leavers lepromatous leprosy Lepromatous leprosy Leprosy leprosy leprosy delays Leprosy diagnosis delay Leprosy disability leprosy in Nepal leprosy reactio leprosy reaction leprosy reactions Leprosy reactions leprosy wounds Leprosy-related disabilities Leprosy; Lobomycosis; keloidal blastomycosis; Paracoccidioides loboi; Jorge Lobos disease linkages localized lepromatous leprosy lockdown and leprosy logMAR low dose adrenocorticotrophin stimulation test low-cost LPEP Lucio phenomenon lupus vulgaris lymphatic filariasis M. leprae M. leprae M. leprae infection Malaysia malondialdehyde matrix metalloproteinases MB leprosy MDT mechanical rupture median nerve medical interns medical students mental health mental wellbeing methotrexate MFP micro-cellular rubber mimick minocycline misdiagnosis MMP-9 Mortality rate most significant change motor Mouse Foot Pad mouse foot pad multi drug resistance Multi Drug Therapy Multibacillary multibacillary leprosy Myanmar mycobacteria mycobacterium leprae Mycobacterium leprae Mycobacterium lepromatosis nasal carriage nasal cavity nasal secretion Necrotic ENL Neglected Tropical Diseases Nepal Nerve nerve biopsy nerve conduction study nerve decompression nerve enlargement Nerve function impairment nerve function impairment neural compression neural leprosy neuritis neurolysis Neuropathic foot neuropathic pain neuropathy New case detection Nigeria nitric oxides NLEP nociceptive pain nomadic pastoralists non-healing wounds NTD ocular conditions offloading ophthalmology optic atrophy Oral cavity Oral health Orientation Orofacial granulomatosis oxidative stress pain pancytopenia panniculitis Parents attitude Participation Participation Scale Participation scale passive and active case finding passive and active leprosy case finding patient compliance patient’s perception Paucibacillary paucibacillary Paucibacillary leprosy paucibacillary Leprosy PB leprosy cases PCR peak plantar pressure Peek Acuity penans perception Periodontal medicine peripheral nerves peripheral neuropathy Peripheral neuropathy Persistent serpentine supravenous hyperpigmented eruption (PSSHE) Person affected by leprosy Person Health with disabilities physical activity Physical disability physical disability physiotherapy plantar pressure plantar ulcer Planter ulcer Platelet rich fibrin polymorphism Portugal post-partum Postural Balance poverty practice practice–theory prednisolone prednisolone and methotrexate pregnancy pressure ulcers prevention Prevention of disability Primary Care Nursing Primary Health Care prophylaxis protective footwear Psychological Assessment Psychological treatment Psychometric psychometric Psychometric properties and Hansen’s disease public private partnership pure neural leprosy Pure Neural leprosy diagnosis Pure neural leprosy suspects pure neuritic leprosy Pure neuritic leprosy Purulia qualitative study Quality of health care quality of life Rating scores reaction Reaction reactions Reactive Oxygen Species ready-made footwear Real Time PCR relapse Relapse Religion renal impairment reporting delay research priorities Resilience resistant rifampicin rifampicin-resistance Risk Risk factor Risk Groups RLEP PCR Routine surveillance RRDR SALSA SARI Sat Scan Scale Scale development scalp sclerotic bodies seasons second-line treatment self help group Semmes Weinstein nylon monofilament Senegal sensory sensory impairment sensory neuropathy Sensory neuropathy sensory painful mononeuritis serology serum SF-36 Sikhism single-dose skin biopsy skin lesions Skin overlying Nerve Snellen chart social aspects social determinants Social distance social distance Social participation social participation Social Participation social protection Soft palate soluble toll like receptor 2 Somatosensory Disorders Sonography southeast Nigeria Spain spatial analysis spatial clustering Spatial-temporal analysis Split Skin Smear states sterile needle steroid therapy steroids stigma Stigma Sudan suicide suppurative ENL surgery sustainable development goals systemic antifungals testicular atrophy Testicular dysfunction testosterone Th17 cells thalidomide therapeutic footwear Time Series Studies Toliara-Madagascar toolkit Total Contact Cast (TCC) Training Transcription factor Transmission transplacental transmission treatment Tregs trends tribal population Trophic ulcers tuberculoid tuberculoid leprosy Tuberculoid Leprosy tuberculosis Type 1 lepra reaction Type 1 reaction Type 2 lepra reaction type 2 lepra reaction U-MDT ulcer recurrence ulcerative ulcers ultrasonography ultrasound uniform multidrug therapy Uninvolved nerves in leprosy Urban Validation study vasculitic neuropathy vasculitis Viable M. leprae visual acuity visual impairment VNTR loci Walking iron warm water WHO grade WHODAS 2.0 Women work performance Z-N staining Ziehl-Neelsen Stain
Original Papers
Pages 75 - 81
  • Full thickness penetrating keratoplasty with cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation in leprosy patients

    • Essam El Toukhy
    • Nadeen El Toukhy
    Volume 91, Issue 1

    | Published on March 2020


    To evaluate visual acuity outcomes and graft survival after full thickness penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) in leprosy patients.


    Case series of triple procedure (PKP, cataract extraction and intraocular implantation) performed on ten eyes of ten leprosy patients who had dense corneal opacity and best correct visual acuity (VA) of <1/60 preoperatively. Data on preoperative and postoperative VA and ocular complications were extracted from case records of patients. Follow up details were available up to 18 months.


    VA improved in eight out of ten patients from <1/60 preoperatively to a range of 5/60 to 6/24 postoperatively at 6 months and the VA was stable at 12 months. Two patients had graft failure with no improvement in VA. Four patients had mild to moderate graft rejections that responded satisfactorily to medical treatment. Epithelial erosion was observed in all patients and was the only complication seen in four patients. None of the epithelial erosions progressed to deep ulcers or epithelial reactions.


    In the majority of eyes, visual acuity improved after corneal transplantation. PKP should be offered to blind leprosy patients who have the potential to recover vision, after carefully individualizing the risks and benefits.

Original Papers
Pages 63 - 74
  • Ocular conditions in newly diagnosed and post-treatment leprosy patients at a National Reference Center in Brazil

    • Otavio Augusto Londero dos Santos
    • Diogo Fernandes dos Santos
    • Douglas Eulálio Antunes
    • Bruno Araujo da Cunha
    • Isabela Maria Bernardes Goulart
    Volume 91, Issue 1

    | Published on March 2020


    This study aimed to evaluate the ocular abnormalities in leprosy patients.


    Patients were classified as multibacillary or paucibacillary, and also according to the Ridley–Jopling classification. They were assessed for their World Health Organization Disability Grade (DG) and evaluated by an ophthalmologist following the International Council of Ophthalmology guidelines.


    Of 249 patients, 79% were seen at the time of diagnosis, while 21% had completed treatment. The mean age was 50.2 (±16.5) years; 52.2% (130/249) were women; 79.9% (199/249) were MB. At diagnosis, 20.1% (50/249) had DG = 2. The most affected disability sites were the feet, followed by hands and eyes. Considering the eyes alone, 87.2% (217/249) of patients had DG = 0; 4.4% (11/249) had DG = 1 and 8.4% (21/249) had DG = 2. Ocular involvement occurred in 49.4% (123/249) of patients, and 207 conditions were diagnosed in total. The main conditions were: pterygium (12.9%), dry eye (11.2%), dermatochalasis (9.2%), keratitis (6.8%), cataract (6.8%), retinal disorders (6.8%), glaucoma (5.6%) and madarosis (4.4%). Conditions that were seen more often in the post-discharge group included lagophthalmos, iridocyclitis and cataract.


    Leprosy patients frequently develop disabilities in their feet and hands, but also require specialized ophthalmological assessment of ocular damage, which remains prevalent, regardless of whether lesions are caused by leprosy or not.

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